This section focuses on the third and fourth of the helpdesk queries: \
What actions need to be taken from a regional perspective to support job creation?
Is there an obvious plan of action to promote job creation from a regional perspective, or does more work need to be done to develop such a plan?
Key Informant Interviews Both of the responses to queries three and four draw on the responses from KIIs. Requests for an interview were sent to the following organisations:
The World Bank
Of the above KIIs were held by telephone with DFID (two persons), UNDP (one person), and USAID (three persons). The interviews covered the following questions:
1. Do you work on job creation initiatives directly or indirectly?
2. Are the above Country specific programmes or do they cross across multiple countries? If so where?
3. Do job creation initiatives (direct or indirect) have a regional dimension? If there isn’t a regional dimension what are the reasons for this/was it considered in the design phase?
4. How important are regional issues when looking at job creation?
5. Are you looking to expand your work in this area (job creation)? If so in what way and over what timeline?
6. (If No to Q1) are you interested in developing the work of your organisation in this area?
7. Do you coordinate with other stakeholders working on job creation initiatives in EAC countries?
8. From a regional perspective, what actions, policies or activities need to be taken to support job creation?
9. Is there an obvious plan/ pathway to promote job creation from a regional perspective at present?
Interventions: Past, Present and Future The research looked at supported interventions in the EAC creation, though interviews and a desk review. The criteria for inclusion were projects self-assessed by KIIs as relating to regional job creation within the EAC region. Below we offer a brief overview of interventions with information on budget, implementers and timescale where available.
Current and past programmes mentioned by KIIs:
TMEA is funded by a range of development agencies with the aim of growing prosperity in East Africa through trade83. TMEA covers all EAC countries plus South Sudan. TMEA has a regional dimension and is focused on the promotion of trade in East Africa and regional economic integration. TMEA works closely with EAC institutions, national governments, the private sector and civil society organisations to increase trade by unlocking economic potential through: Increased market access; Enhanced trade environment; and, increased product competitiveness. TMEA has its headquarters in Nairobi with branches in Arusha, Bujumbura, Dar es Salaam, Juba, Kampala and Kigali
Kenya Market Trust (KMT)85: KMT has been implementing the multi-donor programme; Market Assistance Programme (MAP). MAP is a programme that seeks to strengthen the performance of key agricultural and basic service markets in Kenya so that they can function better and improve the lives of those participating in them whether as producers, employees or consumers. Presently, the programme is promoting sustainable markets in the dairy, WASH, media livestock, supply chain, agricultural inputs and seed sectors. MAP is funded by DFID, the Embassy of the Kingdom of Netherlands and Gatsby Charitable Foundation. Output one (contribute towards the creation of 100,000 new jobs in the form of job equivalents and off farm jobs) has a focus on job creation but not on regional economic development.
The Joint Programme on Gender Equality and Women’s Empowerment in Kenya” ran from 2009-2013. The joint programme (totalling USD $ 56,546,373) brought together 14 UN organisations under one programmatic framework in Kenya. Strategic Priority Area 4 was economic empowerment. Under this objective the programme targeted public and private sector institutions, women’s organisations, groups and networks ensuring increased women’s access to economic opportunities86. The final annual review found through the activities of the Joint Programme more women are now able to document an increase in incomes as a result of their strengthened capacity to undertake viable businesses. Women’s cooperatives supported by the Joint Programme have registered growth in incomes, improved management and gained access to wider markets for their products87.
The UN Development Assistance Framework for Kenya for 2014-2018 continues the above programme’s focus on economic empowerment with a commitment to a development process led and driven by an inclusive, healthy, highly skilled and motivated human capital and an industrialising economy in which growth is inclusive and trade is regionally integrated and private sector-driven88,
The USAID East Africa Trade Hub ran from 2009 – February 2014 with funding of USD $78 million. The East Africa Trade Hub works with regional public and private sector partners to develop systems and policies that improve competitive regional and international trade and food security in East Africa. Activity areas include streamlining transit and cross-border trade, improving trade policy, and supporting structured trading systems. Countries of focus were: Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania, Uganda, Burundi, Ethiopia and Mauritius89
Yes Youth Can started in 2011. The programme runs until 2014 with a USD 55 million budget90 and is funded by USAID. The programme created a network of youth in 27 counties made up of around 22,000 villages. Youth members elect leaders who represent them during county and national level forums. The aim of the programme is to develop peaceful leaders among 18-35 year-olds, with the complementary objective of improving their socioeconomic status. Job creation is allegedly one of the key areas of conversation within the network91.
Trade Africa is a partnership between the United States and sub-Saharan Africa to increase internal and regional trade within Africa, and expand trade and economic ties among Africa, the United States, and other global markets. The initiative focuses on the member states of the EAC. In its initial phase, Trade Africa aims to double intra-regional trade in the EAC, increase EAC exports to the United States by 40 percent, reduce by 15 percent the average time needed to import or export a container from the ports of Mombasa or Dar es Salaam to land-locked Burundi and Rwanda in the EAC’s interior, and decrease by 3 percent the average time a truck takes to transit selected borders92.
AgDevCo has received GBP £50 million from DFID in support of the creation of commercially sustainable agriculture and agribusiness ventures and support of emergent commercial and small scale farmers to increase productivity and incomes93. AgDevCo currently operates with locally managed subsidiaries in five countries in sub-Saharan Africa (Mozambique, Ghana, Zambia, Malawi and Tanzania). In these countries, AgDevCo aims to reduce rural poverty directly and indirectly by raising agricultural productivity and incomes and creating employment opportunities for rural communities94.
Financial Sector Deepening Trust (FSDT) has a mission to generate sustainable improvements in the livelihoods of poor households through reduced vulnerability to shocks increased incomes and employment achieved through providing greater access to financial services for more men, women and enterprises. The vision of the FSDT is to achieve improved capacity and sustainability of the financial sector in Tanzania, to meet the needs of SMEs, poor men and women consequently contribute to economic growth. Donor partners include DFID, DANIDA and Foreign Affairs, Trade and Development Canada95.
Strengthening Rural Youth Development through Enterprise (STRYDE) began in August 2011 and is a four year programme designed to provide youth employment training and job placement through a package of services including training and mentoring. The programme aims to equip 15,000 rural youth by 2015 with the skills and knowledge necessary to capitalize on economic opportunities and increase their incomes. As a result, the programme plans to indirectly benefit more than 67,000 family members96.The programme is operational in Kenya, Rwanda and Uganda, has a budget of USD $11.5 million, and is the result of a partnership between TechnoServe and The MasterCard Foundation97.
Decent Work Country Programmes (DWCPs) have been established as the main vehicle for delivery of ILO support to countries. The objectives are to promote decent work within national development strategies and to use ILO knowledge, instruments, advocacy and cooperation at the service of tripartite constituents in a results-based framework to advance the Decent Work Agenda. DWCPs exist in English for five of the EAC partner states98. The three priority areas for Kenya’s DWCP are to enhance social protection through policies and actions that promote social assistance, social security and health insurance, promote employment creation and employability and strengthen industrial relations promotion of employment99. The three priority areas for Uganda’s DWCP are to improve labour administration and adherence to fundamental rights and labour standards, promote youth employment and improve social protection for formal and informal sector workers100. The three priority areas for Tanzania’s DWCP are to extend social protection coverage for all, promote the creation of productive employment and improved compliance with labour standards and rights at work101.